【摘要】：BACKGROUND Bowel ultrasound and magnetic resonance enterography(MRE) are decisive medical imaging modalities for diagnosing and locating bowel lesions with its extramural extent and complications. They assess the degree of activity, help clinicians to identify patients in need of surgery, and can be used for patient follow-up.AIM To compare the role of MRE and bowel ultrasound in diagnosis and follow-up of inflammatory bowel disease(IBD) patients in Egypt.METHODS The study was conducted on 40 patients with IBD. All patients were subjected to clinical assessment, laboratory investigations, bowel ultrasound, MRE, and colonoscopy up to the terminal ileum with biopsies for histopathological examination.RESULTS This study was conducted on 14 patients(35%) with ulcerative colitis and 26 patients(65%) with Crohn's disease; 34(85%) of these patients had active disease. Bowel ultrasound detected different bowel lesions with the following accuracies: ileum(85%), large bowel(70%), fistula(95%), stricture and proximal dilatation(95%) and abscesses(100%). Also, it showed that statistically significance of bowel ultrasound in differentiation between remission and activity of IBD in comparison to MRE and colonoscopy.CONCLUSION In comparison to MRE, bowel ultrasound is a useful, non-invasive, and feasible bedside imaging tool for the detection of inflammation, detection of complications, and follow-up of IBD patients when performed by the attending physician.