【摘要】：Hepatocellular carcinoma(HCC) with portal vein tumor thrombus(PVTT) is a disease that is not uncommon, but the treatments vary drastically between Eastern and Western countries. In Europe and America, the first line of treatment is systemic therapy such as sorafenib and the surgical treatment is not a recommend option. While an increasing number of studies from China and Japan have suggested that surgical treatment results in better outcomes when compared to transcatheter arterial chemoembolization(TACE), sorafenib, or other nonsurgical treatments, and two classification systems, Japanese Vp classification and Chinese Cheng's classification, were very useful to guide the surgical treatment. We have also found that surgical treatment may be more effective, as we have performed surgical treatment for HCC-PVTT patients over a period of approximately 15 years and achieved good results with the longest surviving time being 13 years and onward. In this study, we review the efficacy and principles of current surgical treatments and introduce our new, more effective surgical technique named "thrombectomy first", which means the tumor thrombus in the main portal vein, the bifurcation or the contralateral portal vein should be removed prior to liver resection. Thus, compression and crushing of PVTT during the operation could be avoided and new intrahepatic metastases caused by tumor thrombus to the remnant liver minimized. The new technique is even beneficial to the prognosis of Cheng's classification Types Ⅲ and Ⅳ PVTT. The vital tips and tricks for the surgical approach are described.