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Hepatitis B virus and micro RNAs:Complex interactions affecting hepatitis B virus replication and hepatitis B virusassociated diseases

Jason Lamontagne  Laura F Steel  Michael J Bouchard  
【摘要】:Chronic infection with the hepatitis B virus(HBV) is the leading risk factor for the development of hepatocellular carcinoma(HCC). With nearly 750000 deaths yearly, hepatocellular carcinoma is the second highest cause of cancer-related death in the world. Unfortunately, the molecular mechanisms that contribute to the development of HBV-associated HCC remain incompletely understood. Recently, micro RNAs(mi RNAs), a family of small non-coding RNAs that play a role primarily in post-transcriptional gene regulation, have been recognized as important regulators of cellular homeostasis, and altered regulation of mi RNA expression has been suggested to play a significant role in virus-associated diseases and the development of many cancers. With this in mind, many groups have begun to investigate the relationship between mi RNAs and HBV replication and HBV-associated disease. Multiple findings suggest that some mi RNAs, such as mi R-122, and mi R-125 and mi R-199 family members, are playing a role in HBV replication and HBV-associated disease, including the development of HBV-associated HCC. In this review, we discuss the current state of our understanding of the relationship between HBV and mi RNAs, including how HBV affects cellular mi RNAs, how these mi RNAs impact HBV replication, and the relationship between HBV-mediated mi RNA regulation and HCC development. We also address the impact of challenges in studying HBV, such as the lack of an effective model system for infectivity and a reliance on transformed cell lines, on our understanding of the relationship between HBV and mi RNAs, and proposepotential applications of mi RNA-related techniques that could enhance our understanding of the role mi RNAs play in HBV replication and HBV-associated disease, ultimately leading to new therapeutic options and improved patient outcomes.

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