【摘要】：Depression is a common, recurrent mental disorder and one of the leading causes of disability and global burden of disease worldwide. Up to 15%-40% of cases do not respond to diverse pharmacological treatments and, thus, can be defined as treatment-resistant depression(TRD). The development of biomarkers predictive of drug response could guide us towards personalized and earlier treatment. Growing evidence points to the involvement of the glutamatergic system in the pathogenesis of TRD. Specifically, the N-methyl-D-aspartic acid receptor(NMDAR) and α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid receptor (AMPAR), which are targeted by ketamine and esketamine, are proposed as promising pathways. A literature search was performed to identify studies on the genetics of the glutamatergic system in depression, focused on variables related to NMDARs and AMPARs. Our review highlights GRIN2B, which encodes the NR2B subunit of NMDAR, as a candidate gene in the pathogenesis of TRD. In addition, several studies have associated genes encoding AMPAR subunits with symptomatic severity and suicidal ideation. These genes encoding glutamatergic receptors could, therefore, be candidate genes for understanding the etiopathogenesis of TRD, as well as for understanding the pharmacodynamic mechanisms and response to ketamine and esketamine treatment.