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TiO_2-based materials for photocatalytic hydrogen production

G.L.Chiarello  M.V.Dozzi  E.Selli  
【摘要】:Hydrogen, the cleanest and most promising energy vector, can be produced by solar into chemical energy conversion, either by the photocatalytic direct splitting of water into H_2 and O_2, or, more efficiently,in the presence of sacrificial reagents, e.g., in the so-called photoreforming of organics. Efficient photocatalytic materials should not only be able to exploit solar radiation to produce electron–hole pairs, but also ensure enough charge separation to allow electron transfer reactions, leading to solar energy driven thermodynamically up-hill processes. Recent achievements of our research group in the development and testing of innovative TiO_2-based photocatalytic materials are presented here, together with an overview on the mechanistic aspects of water photosplitting and photoreforming of organics. Photocatalytic materials were either(i) obtained by surface modification of commercial photocatalysts, or produced(ii) in powder form by different techniques, including traditional sol gel synthesis, aiming at engineering their electronic structure, and flame spray pyrolysis starting from organic solutions of the precursors, or(iii) in integrated form, to produce photoelectrodes within devices, by radio frequency magnetron sputtering or by electrochemical growth of nanotube architectures, or photocatalytic membranes, by supersonic cluster beam deposition.

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