Soil Conservation Measures in Rainfed Olive Orchards in South-Eastern Spain: Impacts of Plant Strips on Soil Water Dynamics
V. H. DURN ZUAZO C. R. RODRíGUEZ PLEGUEZUELO L. ARROYO PANADERO A. MARTíNEZ RAYA J. R. FRANCIA MARTíNEZ B. CRCELES RODRíGUEZ
【摘要】：Sloping and mountainous olive production systems are widespread, occupying large parts of the Mediterranean landscape prone to water erosion. Soil erosion, runoff, and soil water content patterns over a three-year period were monitored in erosion plots on a mountainside with rainfed olive (Olea europaea cv. Picual) trees under: 1) non-tillage with barley strips of 4 m width (BS); 2) non-tillage with native vegetation strips of 4 m width (NVS); and 3) non-tillage without plant strips (NT). The erosion plots, located in Lanjaron (Granada, south-eastern Spain), on a 30% slope, were 192 m2 in area. For assessing soil water dynamics in real-time and near-continuous soil water content measurements, multisensor capacitance probes were installed in the middle of plant strips and beneath the olive tree at five soil depths (10, 20, 30, 50, and 100 cm). The highest erosion and runoff rates were measured under NT, with a mean of 17.3 Mg ha-1 year-1 and 140.0 mm year-1, respectively, over the entire study period. The BS and NVS with respect to the NT reduced erosion by 71% and 59% and runo? by 95% and 94%, respectively. In general, greater available soil water content was found under BS than NVS and NT, especially beneath the olive tree canopies. These results supported the recommendation of non-tillage with barley strips in order to reduce erosion and to preserve soil water for trees in traditional mountainous olive-producing areas, where orchards cover vast tracts of land.