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A novel viewpoint in glaucoma therapeutics: enriched environment

María F.González Fleitas  Damián Dorfman  Ruth E.Rosenstein  
【摘要】:Glaucoma is one of the world's most frequent visual impairment causes and leads to selective damage to retinal ganglion cells and their axons. Despite glaucoma's most accepted risk factor is increased intraocular pressure(IOP), the mechanisms behind the disease have not been fully elucidated. To date, IOP lowering remains the gold standard; however, glaucoma patients may still lose vision regardless of effective IOP management. Therefore, the exclusive IOP control apparently is not enough to stop the disease progression, and developing new resources to protect the retina and optic nerve against glaucoma is a goal of vast clinical importance. Besides pharmacological treatments, environmental conditions have been shown to prevent neurodegeneration in the central nervous system. In this review, we discuss current concepts on key pathogenic mechanisms involved in glaucoma, the effect of enriched environment on these mechanisms in different experimental models, as well as recent evidence supporting the preventive and therapeutic effect of enriched environment exposure against experimental glaucomatous damage. Finally, we postulate that stimulating vision may become a non-invasive and rehabilitative therapy that could be eventually translated to the human disease, preventing glaucoma-induced terrible sequelae resulting in permanent visual disability.

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