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Multimodal treatment for spinal cord injury: a sword of neuroregeneration upon neuromodulation

Ya Zheng  Ye-Ran Mao  Ti-Fei Yuan  Dong-Sheng Xu  Li-Ming Cheng  
【摘要】:Spinal cord injury is linked to the interruption of neural pathways, which results in irreversible neural dysfunction. Neural repair and neuroregeneration are critical goals and issues for rehabilitation in spinal cord injury, which require neural stem cell repair and multimodal neuromodulation techniques involving personalized rehabilitation strategies. Besides the involvement of endogenous stem cells in neurogenesis and neural repair, exogenous neural stem cell transplantation is an emerging effective method for repairing and replacing damaged tissues in central nervous system diseases. However, to ensure that endogenous or exogenous neural stem cells truly participate in neural repair following spinal cord injury, appropriate interventional measures(e.g., neuromodulation) should be adopted. Neuromodulation techniques, such as noninvasive magnetic stimulation and electrical stimulation, have been safely applied in many neuropsychiatric diseases. There is increasing evidence to suggest that neuromagnetic/electrical modulation promotes neuroregeneration and neural repair by affecting signaling in the nervous system; namely, by exciting, inhibiting, or regulating neuronal and neural network activities to improve motor function and motor learning following spinal cord injury. Several studies have indicated that fine motor skill rehabilitation training makes use of residual nerve fibers for collateral growth, encourages the formation of new synaptic connections to promote neural plasticity, and improves motor function recovery in patients with spinal cord injury. With the development of biomaterial technology and biomechanical engineering, several emerging treatments have been developed, such as robots, brain-computer interfaces, and nanomaterials. These treatments have the potential to help millions of patients suffering from motor dysfunction caused by spinal cord injury. However, large-scale clinical trials need to be conducted to validate their efficacy. This review evaluated the efficacy of neural stem cells and magnetic or electrical stimulation combined with rehabilitation training and intelligent therapies for spinal cord injury according to existing evidence, to build up a multimodal treatment strategy of spinal cord injury to enhance nerve repair and regeneration.

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