The genetic load for hereditary hearing impairment in Chinese population and its clinical implication
【摘要】：Objective To understand the genetic load in the Chinese population for improvement in diagnosis, prevention and rehabilitation of deafness. Methods DNA samples, immortalized cell lines as well as detailed clinical and audiometric data were collected through a national genetic resources collecting network. Two conventional genetic approaches were used in the studies. Linkage analysis in X chromosome and autosomes with microsatellite markers were performed in large families for gene mapping and positional cloning of novel genes. Candidate gene approach was used for screening the mtDNA 12SrRNA, GJB2 and SLC26A4 mutations in population -based samples. Results A total of 2,572 Chinese hearing loss families or sporadic cases were characterized in the reported studies, including seven X-linked, one Y-linked, 28 large and multiplex autosomal dominant hearing loss families, 607 simplex autosomal recessive hereditary hearing loss families, 100 mitochondrial inheritance families, 147 GJB2 induced hearing loss cases, 230 cases with enlarged vestibular aqueduct (EVA) syndrome, 169 sporadic cases with auditory neuropathy, and 1,283 sporadic sensorineural hearing loss cases. Through linkage analysis or sequence analysis, two X-linked families were found transmitting two novel mutations in the POU3F4 gene, while another X -linked family was mapped onto a novel locus, nominated as AUNX1 (auditory neuropathy, X-linked locus 1). The only Y-linked family was mapped onto the DFNY1 locus(Y-linked locus 1, DFNY1). Eight of the 28 autosomal dominant families were linked to various autosomal loci. In population genetics studies, 2,567 familial cases and sporadic patients were subjected to mutation screening for three common hearing loss genes: mtDNA 12S rRNA 1555G, GJB2 and SLC26A4. The auditory neuropathy cases in our samples were screened for OTOF gene mutations. Conclusions These data show that the Chinese population has a genetic load on hereditary hearing loss. Establishing personalized surveillance and prevention models for hearing loss based on genetic research will provide the opportunity to decrease the prevalence of deafness in the Chinese population.