【摘要】：[Objectives] To study the differences in fruit traits of different populations of Paeonia ludlowii,and to provide basic data for the identification,protection and utilization of germplasm resources of P. ludlowii.[Methods] Nine fruit traits of three different populations of P. ludlowii in Tibet were tested and analyzed.[Results]The mean values of 9 fruit traits of P. ludlowiiwere different in different populations;the coefficients of variation of different traits of different populations were also different; there were morphological differences of different sizes among individuals in each population; there were significant differences in 8 traits (pod length,pod width,pod thickness,pod weight,seeds per pod,seed length,seed width,and seed weight) among different populations. Among the 9 traits of the three P. ludlowii populations,the variability of the five traits was higher in the fruit pods,the variation degree of five traits including pod weight,pod thickness,seeds per pod,and seed weight was higher. It is of great significance for the screening and preservation of the germplasm resources of P. ludlowii. According to the principal component analysis (PCA),the seed weight,seed width,and seed length,i. e. the seed traits,were the main factors causing differences in fruit traits among populations. There was a certain correlation between different traits of P. ludlowii. Among the 36 Pearsonrelated combinations of 9 fruit traits,11 combinations had extremely significant correlations,and 8 combinations had significant correlations,indicating that there was a certain correlation between fruit traits in the growth and development. Through cluster analysis,three populations of P. ludlowii can be divided into two categories. The BV population was a category,which is characterized by long pods,long seeds,wide seeds,thick seeds and large seed weight. Therefore,the BV population is suitable material for breeding excellent varieties.[Conclusions]This study provides basic data for the identification,protection and utilization of germplasm resources of P. ludlowii.