【摘要】：Vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers(VCSELs) are the ideal optical sources for data communication and sensing.In data communication, large data rates combined with excellent energy efficiency and temperature stability have been achieved based on advanced device design and modulation formats. VCSELs are also promising sources for photonic integrated circuits due to their small footprint and low power consumption. Also, VCSELs are commonly used for a wide variety of applications in the consumer electronics market. These applications range from laser mice to three-dimensional(3 D) sensing and imaging, including various 3 D movement detections, such as gesture recognition or face recognition. Novel VCSEL types will include metastructures, exhibiting additional unique properties, of largest importance for next-generation data communication, sensing, and photonic integrated circuits.