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《Current Zoology》 2010年06期
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Neurobiology of mammalian olfactory learning that occurs during sensitive periods

Hideto KABA  
【摘要】:正 This review examines the organizational principles underlying olfactory learning in three specialized contexts thatoccur during sensitive periods of enhanced neural plasticity and emphasizes some of their common features. All three forms ofolfactory learning are associated with neural changes in the olfactory bulb (OB) at the first stage of sensory processing. Thesechanges require the association of the olfactory and somatosensory signals in the OB. They all depend on somatosensory stimulation-induced release of noradrenaline that induces structural and functional changes at mitral-granule cell reciprocal synapses inthe OB, resulting in increases in inhibitory transmission. In the accessory olfactory bulb, this represents the enhancedself-inhibition of mitral cells, which selectively disrupts the transmission of the mating male's pregnancy-blocking signal at thislevel. In contrast, an extensive network of secondary dendrites of mitral cells in the main olfactory bulb probably results in asharpening of the odor-induced pattern of activity, due to increases in lateral inhibition, leading to offspring recognition in sheepand neonatal learning in rats and rabbits. These findings show that inhibitory interneurons play a critical role in olfactory learning.Further work on how these neurons shape olfactory circuit function could provide important clues to understand memory functionsof interneurons in other systems. Moreover, recent research has suggested that three forms of olfactory learning are controlledby synergistic, redundant, and distributed neural mechanisms. This has general implications regarding the mechanisms thatmay contribute to the robustness of memories

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