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《Journal of Geographical Sciences》 2017年04期
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长江三峡水坝下游河道悬沙恢复和床沙补给机制研究(英文)

张为  杨云平  张明进  李义天  朱玲玲  由星莹  王冬  徐俊锋  
【摘要】:River basin reservoir construction affects water and sediment transport processes in downstream reaches. The downstream impact of the Three Gorges Projects(TGP) has started to become apparent:(1) reduction in flood duration and discharge, and significant reduction in sediment load. Although there was some restoration in downstream sediment load, the total amount did not exceed the pre-impoundment annual average;(2) in 2003–2014, the d 0.125 mm(coarse sand) load was restored to some degree, and to a maximum at Jianli Station, which was mainly at the pre-impoundment average. After restoration, erosion and deposition characteristics of the sediment was identical to that before impoundment. The degree of restoration during 2008–2014 was less than during 2003–2007;(3) after TGP impoundment, there was some restoration in d 0.125 mm(fine sand) sediment load, however, it was lower than the pre-impoundment average;(4) due to riverbed compensation, the d 0.125 mm sediment load recovered to a certain degree after impoundment, however, the total did not exceed 4400×10~4 t/y. This was mainly limited by flood duration and the average flow rate, and was less affected by upstream main stream, tributaries, or lakes. Restoration of d 0.125 mm suspended sediment was largely controlled by upstream main stream, tributaries, and lakes, as well as by riverbed compensation. Due to bed armoring, riverbed fine suspended sediment compensation capability was weakened;(5) during 2003–2007 and 2008–2014, Yichang to Zhicheng and upper Jingjiang experienced coarse and fine erosion,lower Jingjiang experienced coarse deposition and fine erosion, Hankou to Datong had coarse deposition and fine erosion, and Chenglingji and Hankou was characterized by coarse deposition and fine sand erosion in 2003–2007, and coarse and fine erosion in 2008–2014. This difference was controlled by flood duration and number at Luoshan Station.

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