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Review of research on Arctic sea ice physics based on the Chinese National Arctic Research Expedition

LEI Ruibo  ZHANG Zhanhai  LI Zhijun  YANG Qinghua  LI Bingrui  LI Tao  
【摘要】:China launched its Arctic research program and organized the first Chinese National Arctic Research Expedition(CHINARE-Arctic) in 1999. By 2016, six further expeditions had been conducted using the R/V Xuelong. The main region of the expeditions has focused on the Pacific sector of the Arctic Ocean for sea ice observations. The expeditions have used icebreaker, helicopter, boat, floe, and buoy platforms to perform these observations. Some new technologies have been developed, in particular, the underway auto-observing system for sea ice thickness using an electromagnetic instrument. The long-term measurement systems, e.g., the sea ice mass balance buoy, allow observations to extend from summer to winter. Some international cooperation projects have been involved in CHINARE-Arctic, especially the "Developing Arctic Modeling and Observing Capabilities for Long-Term Environmental Studies" project funded by the European Union during the International Polar Year. Arctic sea ice observations have been used to verify remote sensing products, identify changes in Arctic sea ice, optimize the parameterizations of sea ice physical processes, and assess the accessibility of ice-covered waters, especially around the Northeast Passage. Recommendations are provided as guidance to future CHINARE-Arctic projects. For example, a standardized operation system of sea ice observations should be contracted, and the observations of sea ice dynamics should be enhanced. The upcoming launch of a new Chinese icebreaker will allow increased ship time in support of future CHINARE Arctic oceanographic investigations.

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