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ADAR-mediated RNA editing in non-coding RNA sequences

YANG Yun  ZHOU XinXin  JIN YongFeng  
【摘要】:Adenosine to inosine(A-to-I)RNA editing is the most abundant editing event in animals.It converts adenosine to inosine in double-stranded RNA regions through the action of the adenosine deaminase acting on RNA(ADAR)proteins.Editing of pre-mRNA coding regions can alter the protein codon and increase functional diversity.However,most of the A-to-I editing sites occur in the non-coding regions of pre-mRNA or mRNA and non-coding RNAs.Untranslated regions(UTRs)and introns are located in pre-mRNA non-coding regions,thus A-to-I editing can influence gene expression by nuclear retention,degradation,alternative splicing,and translation regulation.Non-coding RNAs such as microRNA(miRNA),small interfering RNA(siRNA)and long non-coding RNA(lncRNA)are related to pre-mRNA splicing,translation,and gene regulation.A-to-I editing could therefore affect the stability,biogenesis,and target recognition of non-coding RNAs.Finally,it may influence the function of non-coding RNAs,resulting in regulation of gene expression.This review focuses on the function of ADAR-mediated RNA editing on mRNA non-coding regions(UTRs and introns)and non-coding RNAs(miRNA,siRNA,and lncRNA).

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