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Satellite-observed trends in the Arctic sea ice concentration for the period 1979–2016

WANG Yunhe  BI Haibo  HUANG Haijun  LIU Yanxia  LIU Yilin  LIANG Xi  FU Min  ZHANG Zehua  
【摘要】:Arctic sea ice cover has decreased dramatically over the last three decades. This study quanti?es the sea ice concentration(SIC) trends in the Arctic Ocean over the period of 1979–2016 and analyzes their spatial and temporal variations. During each month the SIC trends are negative over the Arctic Ocean, wherein the largest(smallest) rate of decline found in September(March) is-0.48%/a(-0.10%/a).The summer(-0.42%/a) and autumn(-0.31%/a) seasons show faster decrease rates than those of winter(-0.12%/a) and spring(-0.20%/a) seasons. Regional variability is large in the annual SIC trend. The largest SIC trends are observed for the Kara(-0.60%/a) and Barents Seas(-0.54%/a), followed by the Chukchi Sea(-0.48%/a), East Siberian Sea(-0.43%/a), Laptev Sea(-0.38%/a), and Beaufort Sea(-0.36%/a). The annual SIC trend for the whole Arctic Ocean is-0.26%/a over the same period. Furthermore, the in?uences and feedbacks between the SIC and three climate indexes and three climatic parameters, including the Arctic Oscillation(AO), North Atlantic Oscillation(NAO), Dipole anomaly(DA), sea surface temperature(SST), surface air temperature(SAT), and surface wind(SW), are investigated. Statistically, sea ice provides memory for the Arctic climate system so that changes in SIC driven by the climate indices(AO, NAO and DA) can be felt during the ensuing seasons. Positive SST trends can cause greater SIC reductions, which is observed in the Greenland and Barents Seas during the autumn and winter. In contrast, the removal of sea ice(i.e., loss of the insulating layer) likely contributes to a colder sea surface(i.e., decreased SST), as is observed in northern Barents Sea. Decreasing SIC trends can lead to an in-phase enhancement of SAT, while SAT variations seem to have a lagged in?uence on SIC trends. SW plays an important role in the modulating SIC trends in two ways: by transporting moist and warm air that melts sea ice in peripheral seas(typically evident inthe Barents Sea) and by exporting sea ice out of the Arctic Ocean via passages into the Greenland and Barents Seas, including the Fram Strait, the passage between Svalbard and Franz Josef Land(S-FJL),and the passage between Franz Josef Land and Severnaya Zemlya(FJL-SZ).

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