Low- and Mid-High Latitude Components of the East Asian Winter Monsoon and Their Reflecting Variations in Winter Climate over Eastern China
【摘要】：The present study defines a low-latitude component (regionally averaged winter 1000-hPa V-winds over 10 25°N, 105 135°E) and a mid-high-latitude component (regionally averaged winter 1000-hPa V-winds over 30 50°N, 110 125°E) of the East Asian winter monsoon (EAWM), which are denoted as EAWM-L and EAWM-M, respectively. The study examines the variation characteristics, reflecting variations in winter climate over eastern China, and associated atmospheric circulations corresponding to the two components. The main results are as follows: 1) the EAWM-L and EAWM-M have consistent variation in some years but opposite variations in other years; 2) the EAWM-M index mainly reflects the extensive temperature variability over eastern China, while the EAWM-L index better reflects the variation in winter precipitation over most parts of eastern China; and 3) corresponding to the variation in the EAWM-M index, anomalous winds over the mid-high latitudes of East Asia modulate the southward invasion of cold air from the high latitudes and accordingly affect temperatures over eastern China. In combination with the variation in the EAWM-L index, anomalous low-latitudinal winds regulate the water vapor transport from tropical oceans to eastern China, resulting in anomalous winter precipitation. These pronounced differences between the EAWM-L and the EAWM-M suggest that it is necessary to explore the monsoons' individual features and effects in the EAWM study.