【摘要】：Based on the theory of planned behavior( TPB),Taking 399 livestock and poultry farms and households in Shandong Province as samples,risk cognitive variables were introduced. Besides,with the aid of the structural equation model( SEM) and partial least squares method( PLS),through an empirical analysis on antibiotic prophylactic behavior of livestock and poultry breeding farms and households in the context of " antibiotic free" production,the response mechanism of " antibiotic free" production was explored. Results indicated that the use of antibiotic prophylaxis by livestock and poultry farms and households is still very common. In the observation samples,61. 4% clearly expressed they would use antibiotic prophylaxis; the understanding of hazard of improper antibiotic prophylaxis was inadequate,only 32. 3% breeding households believed that the overuse of antibiotic prophylaxis is the main reason leading to excessive drug residue in animal products. This study was in line with the process of deduction of TPB. The breeding households' reduction of antibiotic prophylaxis is influenced by their intentions,while the intention is influenced by the attitude,subjective norms and perceptual behavior control; different risks have different influences,but most risks have greater influence on perceptual behavior control,because the perceptual behavior control determines whether breeding households have the ability of implementing the corresponding behavior.